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목차가 굉장히 상세하고 방대하여 하단에 간단목차와 상세목차를 각각 기재하였습니다.


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Essential Facts of Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine in Companion Animals
Editor: Barbara Bockstahler 
Assistant Editor: Kathleen Wittek 
Main Authors: Barbara Bockstahler, David Levine, Johann Maierl, Darryl Millis, Kathleen Wittek
Publisher : VBS VetVerlag, Buchhandel und Seminar GmbH
720 pages 
ISBN 9783938274309

  • Fact style – no endless text
  • Physiology and pathophysiology of tissue and healing
  • Orthopedic, neurologic and cardio-vascular examination including outcome assessment (text, pictures, videos)
  • Evidence based exercises, manual therapy and modalities, including laser, TENS, UWT, shockwave, nuclear resonance therapy and many more (text, pictures, videos)
  • Biologic treatments (PRP, stem cells etc.)
  • Integration of the petowner and homework
  • Nutrition in rehab, dog sports etc.
  • Sports medicine and back to sports
  • Detailed anatomy and neurology in combination with the treatment options to set up an individual treatment plan





간단 목차
Contents

1. Foreword
2. Physiology and Pathophysiology of  Tissues and Healing
3. Biomechanics - Understand Movement 
4. Exercise Physiology
5. Pain - Pathophysiology and Management 
6. Examination of the Physiotherapy Patient 
7. Passive Range of Motion Exercises and Stretching 
8. Active Therapeutic Exercises
9. Land Treadmill
10. Aquatic Therapy
11. Joint Mobilization in Canines
12. Massage Therapy
13. Superficial Thermal Modalities
14. Therapeutic Ultrasound
15. Electrical Stimulation
16. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT)
17. Laser Therapy
18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Therapy
19. Kinesiology Taping
20. Veterinary Orthotics and Prosthetics in Practice
21. Regenerative Medicine and Biological Treatment Approaches
22. Magnet Therapy - Static Magnetic Fields (SMF) and Pulsed  Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF)
23. Diet and Weight Management in Physiotherapy
24. The Home Environment
25. The Owner’s Role in Physiotherapy
26. Choosing the Right Therapy - Practical Tips from the Expert
27. The Athletic Dog in Physiotherapy
28. Treatment  Plans
29. References 597
30. Index 621




상세 목차

Contents

1. Foreword 3
1.1 The Terms “Physical Medicine” and “Physiotherapy” 3
1.2 Physical Medicine and Physiotherapy in Veterinary Medicine 3
1.3 This Book 4


2. Physiology and Pathophysiology of  Tissues and Healing 7
2.1 Connective Tissue 7
2.1.1 Function 7
2.1.2 Cells 7
2.1.3 Extracellular Matrix 8
   Collagen Fibers 8
   Elastic Fibers and Elastin 8
   Proteoglycan 9
   Water 9
   Non-Collagenous  Proteins 9
2.1.4 Nutrition of the Connective Tissue 9
   Role of Blood Circulation 9
   Role of Tissue Loading and Unloading 9
2.2 Wound Healing 10
2.2.1 Phases of Wound Healing 10
   Inflammatory Phase (Day 0-5) 10
   Reparative Phase (Proliferative, Fibroblastic) (Day 5-21) 10
   Remodeling Phase (Beginning at Day 21) 11
2.3 Bones 12
2.3.1 Function of Bones 12
2.3.2 Bone Structure 12
2.3.3 Components 13
2.3.4 Bone Growth 13
2.3.5 Importance of Mechanical Stress 13
2.3.6 Blood Supply 13
2.3.7 Immobilization and Remobilization 14
2.3.8 Bone Healing 14
   Biomechanics 14
   Primary (Direct) Bone Healing 14
   Secondary (Indirect) Healing 15
   Factors Affecting Bone Healing 15
2.4 Muscles 15
2.4.1 Structure of Muscles 15
2.4.2 Types of Muscle Fibres 16
2.4.3 Blood Supply 17
2.4.4 Connective Tissue Within the Muscle Belly 17
2.4.5 Muscle Contraction 18
   Mechanisms of Muscle Contraction 18
   Types of Muscle Contractions 18
   Regulation of Muscle Contractions 20
   Factors Influencing Muscle Contractions 20
   Muscle Energy Systems 20
   Lactate Production During Physical Exertion 21
2.4.6 Muscle Atrophy 21
   Disuse Atrophy 21
   Neurogenic Muscle Atrophy 21
   Remobilization of Muscles 22
2.4.7 Muscle Healing 22
2.5 Tendons 22
2.5.1 Tendon Structure 22
2.5.2 Stress-Strain Curve 23
2.5.3 Myotendinous Junction 24
2.5.4 Osteotendinous Junction 24
2.5.5 Immobilization and Remobilization 24
2.5.6 Tendon Healing 24
2.6 Ligaments 25
2.6.1 Ligament Structure 25
2.6.2 Ligament Healing 25
2.7 Articular Cartilage 25
2.7.1 Function and Structure of Articular Cartilage 25
2.7.2 Nutrition 26
2.7.3 Role of Stress Stimuli on Cartilage 26
2.7.4 Cartilage Repair 27
2.7.5 Immobilization and Remobilization 27
2.8 Joint Capsule 27
2.8.1 Response of the Joint Capsule to Disuse/ Immobilization and Remobilization 28
2.9 Synovial Fluid 28
2.10 Nervous System 28
2.10.1 Components of the Nervous System 28
2.10.2 Central Nervous System 28
2.10.3 Peripheral Nervous System 29


3. Biomechanics - Understand Movement 33
3.1 Gait 33
3.1.1 Basic Principles of the Step Cycle 33
3.1.2 Normal Dog Gaits 33
  Walk 34
  Trot 34
  Pace 35
  Gallop 35
3.2 Joints During Motion 36
3.2.1 Shoulder Joint 36
3.2.2 Elbow Joint 36
3.2.3 Carpal Joint 36
3.2.4 Hip Joint 36
3.2.5 Stifle Joint 36
3.2.6 Tarsal Joint 37
3.3 Muscles in Motion 37
3.3.1 Protraction and Retraction 38
3.3.2 Control of Movement by Flexors and Extensors 38
3.3.3 Muscles and Gravity 38
3.3.4 Muscles as Stabilizers 39
3.4 Vertebral Column in Motion 39
3.4.1 Cervical Spine 39
3.4.2 Thoracic Spine 39
3.4.3 Lumbar Spine 39
3.4.4 Muscles of the Vertebral Column 42
3.5 Lameness in Dogs 42
3.5.1 Forelimbs 42
3.5.2 Hindlimbs 42
3.6 Specific Movements 43


4. Exercise Physiology 47
4.1 Energy Production 47
4.1.1 Immediate Sources of Energy 47
4.1.2 Glycolysis 47
4.1.3 Anaerobic glycolysis 47
4.1.4 Aerobic glycolysis 47
4.1.5 Sources of Energy Available While Exercising 49
4.1.6 The Distribution of Energy 49
4.1.7 Maximum Oxygen Consumption (VO2 max) 49
4.2 Muscle Physiology 49
4.2.1 Types of Muscle Fibers 49
4.2.2 Types of Muscle Contractions 49
4.2.3 Musculoskeletal Conditioning 49
   Endurance Training 49
   Muscular Strength 50
   Muscle Fatigue 50
4.3 Respiration 50
4.3.1 Anatomy 50
4.3.2 Control of Ventilation 50
4.3.3 Mechanisms of Breathing 51
4.4 Temperature 51
   Water Balance 52
4.5 The Cardiovascular System 52
4.5.1 Blood Pressure and Blood Flow 52
4.5.2 Function of the Heart 52
4.5.3 Function of the Arterial Vascular System 52
4.5.4 Circulatory Changes During Muscular Activity 54
4.5.5 Changes That Take Place in the Heart ?the Athletic Heart 56
4.5.6 Exercising and the Cardiovascular System 60
4.6 Exercise Capacity and Age 60
4.7 Medical Problems 60
4.8 Energy Requirement and Nutrition 61


5. Pain - Pathophysiology and Management 65
5.1 Why is Pain Management so Important in Physiotherapy? 65
5.1.1 Can Pain be Meaningful? 65
5.1.2 Possible Stress Reactions Triggered by Pain 65
5.2 Classifications of Pain 65
5.2.1 Duration 65
5.2.2 Origin 65
5.2.3 Clinical Considerations 65
 5.3 Pain Physiology and Pathophysiology 66
5.3.1 The Pathway from Triggering Pain to Pain Perception 66
5.3.2 Segmental Innervation and Function 67
   Head-Zone 67
   Mackenzie Zone 67
5.3.3 Pain Modulation 67
   Gate Control Theory 67
   Descending Pain Inhibition 67
5.3.4 Segmental and Suprasegmental Reflex Responses 67
5.3.5 Mechanisms Responsible for Prolonged and Increased Pain 67
   Peripheral Sensitization 67
   Central Sensitization (Wind-Up) 68
   Pain Memory 68
5.4 Measuring Pain, Algesimetry 68
5.4.1 Algesimetry in Acute Pain 68
   Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) 68
   Simple Descriptive Scale (SDS) 68
   Visual Analog Scale 68
   Colorado Acute Pain Scale for Dogs and Cats 68
   Short Form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale 69
   UNESP-Botucatu Multidimensional Composite Pain Scale for Cats 69
5.4.2 Algesimetry with Chronic Pain 69
   Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI) 69
   Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) 69
   Cincinnati Orthopedic Disability Index in Canines (CODI) 69
   Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD) 69
   Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) 69
   Colorado Chronic Pain Scale Dog 69
5.5 Pain Management 70
5.5.1 Multimodal Pain Management 70
   Definition 70
   Preemptive and Preventative Analgesia 70
5.5.2 Common Painkillers 70
   Opioids 70
   Non-Opioid Analgesics 70
   Local Anesthetics 71
   Gabapentin 71
   Corticosteroids 71
5.6 Disease Modifying Osteoarthritis Drugs    (DMOADs) 71
5.7 Dietary Supplements 71
5.8 Other Therapeutical Options 71
5.9 The Effects of Various Pain Management Procedures 72


6. Examination of the Physiotherapy Patient 83
6.1 Basics 83
6.2 Medical History 83
6.2.1 General Information 83
6.2.2 History of the Present Problem 83
6.3 Clinical Examination 83
6.4 Orthopedic Examination 83
6.4.1 Posture 84
6.4.2 Gait 84
   Degree of Lameness 84
   Further Assessments 84
6.4.3 Palpation of the Limbs and Trunk at a Stance 84
   Specific Tests for Assessment of the Limbs and Back in Stance 85
6.4.4 Palpation of the Limbs in Recumbency 85
   Palpation of the Bones and Musculature 85
   Interphalangeal Joints of Forelimb 85
   Carpal Joint 85
   Elbow Joint 85
   Shoulder Joint 85
   Interphalangeal Joints of Pelvic Limb 86
   Tarsal Joint 86
   Stifle Joint 86
   Hip Joint 86
   Lumbosacral Junction 87
6.4.5 Additional Tests 87
   General Information 87
   Range of Motion 87
   Muscle Mass Measurements 91
6.5 Neurological Examination 93
6.5.1 Evaluation at a Stance 93
   Observation 93
   Palpation 93
6.5.2 Gait 93
6.5.3 Brief Cranial Nerve Examination 93
6.5.4 Examination of Reflexes 93
   Pelvic Limb Examination 93
   Trunk 95
   Forelimb Examination 96
   Autonomous Zones 97
6.5.5 Postural Reflexes 97
   Hopping 97
   Hemiwalking 97
   Wheelbarrowing 97
   Proprioceptive Positioning Reaction 97
   Tactile Placing 97
6.5.6 Interpretation of the Neurologic Examination 97
6.6 Follow-up Examinations 98
6.6.1 Guidelines 98
6.6.2 Specific Things That May Be Assessed Include 98
   Geriatric Patients 98
6.7 Cardiovascular Monitoring 98
6.7.1 Blood Pressure Measurements 99
   Blood Pressure Measurement Protocol 99
   Pulse Wave Analysis 99
   Assessment of Blood Pressure 102
   Overall Assessment 102
6.7.2 Clinical Cardiovascular Examination 102
6.8 Thermography 104
6.8.1 Basics 104
   Definition 104
   Mode of Action 104
   Sensitivity 104
   Hair 104
   Palettes 104
6.8.2 Thermal Image Interpretation 104
   Hot Spots 105
   Cold Spots 105
6.8.3 Advantages 105
6.8.4 Limitations 105
6.8.5 Indications 105
6.8.6 Contraindications 106
6.8.7 Videothermography 106
6.8.8 Patient Management and Imaging Protocol 106


7. Passive Range of Motion Exercises and Stretching 109
7.1 Basics 109
7.1.1 Definition 109
7.2 Passive Range of Motion Exercises (PROM) 109
7.2.1 Joint Range of Motion (ROM) 109
   Definition 109
   Changes in ROM 109
7.2.2 Muscles Range of Motion (ROM) 109
7.2.3 Goals 109
7.2.4 Indications 109
7.2.5 Contraindications 109
7.2.6 Clinical Application 109
   General 109
   Individual Joints 110
   Bicycling Motion in Lateral Recumbency 112
7.2.7 Active Assisted and Active Range of Motion Exercises 112
7.3 Stretching 113
7.3.1 Basics 113
   Definition 113
   Flexibility 113
   Contracture 113
7.3.2 Different Types of Stretching 113
7.3.3 Goals 113
7.3.4 Indications 113
7.3.5 Contraindications 113
7.3.6 Clinical Application 113
   Passive Stretching 113
   Active Stretching 114
 

8. Active Therapeutic Exercises 119
8.1 A Guide to Using This Chapter 119
8.1.1 Primary and Secondary Areas of Application 119
8.1.2 Time Factor 119
8.2 General Indications 119
8.3 General Contraindications 119
8.3.1 Absolute Contraindications 119
8.3.2 Special Precautions 119
8.4 Lifting Aids: Moving Straps, Slings and
   Harnesses 120
8.4.1 Applications 120
8.4.2 Contraindications 120
8.4.3 Types 120
   Lifting Harness With Leg Openings 120
   Chest Harnesses 120
   Water as a Lifting Aid 120
8.4.4 Therapeutic Exercises 120
8.5 Standing With and Without Assistance 120
8.5.1 Applications 120
   As a General Rule 120
   Primary Areas of Application 120
   Secondary Areas of Application 121
   Rather Not Recommended for 121
8.5.2 Contraindications 121
8.5.3 Time Frame 121
8.5.4 Biomechanics 121
   Weight Distribution 121
   Joints 121
8.5.5 Therapeutic Exercises 121
   Exercise 1: Tetraplegic Patients 121
   Exercise 2: Paraplegic Patients 121
   Exercise 3: Patients with Decreased Muscle Tone..122
   Exercise 4: Patients with Increased Muscle Tone ...122
   Exercise 5: Weak Animals 122
   Additional Exercises 122
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 122
8.6 Weight Shifting 122
8.6.1 Applications 122
   Primary Areas of Application 122
   Secondary Areas of Application 122
   Rather Not Recommended for 122
8.6.2 Contraindications 122
8.6.3 Time Frame 122
8.6.4 Biomechanics 123
   Weight Distribution 123
8.6.5 Therapeutic Exercises 123
   Exercise 1: Weight Shifting Using a Gentle
   Pushing Technique 123
   Exercise 2: Weight Shifting Using a Slow Release of Applied Pressure 123
   Exercise 3: Weight Shifting Using a Quick Release of Applied Pressure 123
   Exercise 4: Weight Shifting Using Treats 124
   Exercise 5: Weight Shifting by Lifting One (3-Legged Stance) or Two Limbs 124
   Exercise 6: Weight Shifting in Water 125
   Exercise 7: Weight Shifting on a Proprioceptive Wobble Cushion or Trampoline 125
   Exercise 8: Weight Shifting While Walking 126
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 126
8.7 Shaking Hands 126
8.7.1 Applications 126
   Primary Areas of Application 126
   Secondary Areas of Application 126
   Rather Not Recommended for 126
8.7.2 Contraindications 126
8.7.3 Time Frame 126
8.7.4 Biomechanics 126
8.7.5 Therapeutic Exercises 126
   Exercise 1: Shaking Hands While Sitting 126
   Exercise 2: Shaking Hands While Standing 126
   Exercise 3: Shaking Hands on a Proprioceptive Wobble Cushion 126
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 127
8.8 Rhythmic Stabilization, Bouncing 127
8.8.1 Applications 127
   Primary Areas of Application 127
   Secondary Areas of Application 127
   Rather Not Recommended for 127
8.8.2 Contraindications 127
8.8.3 Time Frame 127
8.8.4 Therapeutic Exercises 127
   Exercise 1: Stable Surface 128
   Exercise 2: Elastic/Resilient Surface 128
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 128
8.9 Slow Walks, Walking on a Variety of Surfaces 128
8.9.1 Applications 128
   Primary Areas of Application 128
   Secondary Areas of Application 128
   Rather Not Recommended for 128
8.9.2 Contraindications 128
8.9.3 Time Frame 128
8.9.4 Biomechanics 128
   Joints 128
8.9.5 Therapeutic Exercises 128
   Exercise 1: Slow Walking 128
   Exercise 2: Slow Walking with Weight Shifting 129
   Exercise 3: Walking on a Variety of Surfaces 129
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 129
8.10 Backwards Walking 130
8.10.1 Applications 130
   Primary Areas of Application 130
   Secondary Areas of Application 130
   Rather Not Recommended for 130
8.10.2 Contraindications 130
8.10.3 Time Frame 130
8.10.4 Therapeutic Exercises 130
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 130
8.11 Leg Bands 130
8.11.1 Applications 130
   Primary Areas of Application 130
   Secondary Areas of Application 130
   Rather Not Recommended for 130
8.11.2 Contraindications 131
8.11.3 Time Frame 131
8.11.4 Types 131
8.11.5 Therapeutic Exercises 131
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 131
8.12 Weights Worn on the Back 131
8.12.1 Applications 131
   Primary Areas of Application 131
   Secondary Areas of Application 131
   Rather Not Recommended for 131
8.12.2 Contraindications 131
8.12.3 Time Frame 131
8.12.4 Biomechanics 131
   Musculature 131
8.12.5 Therapeutic Exercises 133
   Exercise 1: Weights Worn on the Animal’s Back (Standing and Walking) 133
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 133
8.13 Weights Attached to the Limbs 133
8.13.1 Applications 133
   Primary Areas of Application 133
   Secondary Areas of Application 133
   Rather Not Recommended for 133
8.13.2 Contraindications 133
8.13.3 Time Frame 133
8.13.4 Biomechanics 133
   Musculature 133
8.13.5 Types 134
8.13.6 Therapeutic Exercises 134
   Exercise 1: Weights Attached to the Limbs (Standing and Walking) 134
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 134
8.14 Pulling Exercises 134
8.14.1 Applications 134
   Primary Areas of Application 134
   Secondary Areas of Application 134
   Rather Not Recommended for 134
8.14.2 Contraindications 134
8.14.3 Time Frame 135
8.14.4 Biomechanics 135
8.14.5 Types 135
8.14.6 Therapeutic Exercises 135
   Exercise 1: Pulling Weight 135
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 135
8.15 Inclines 135
8.15.1 Applications 135
   Primary Areas of Application 135
   Secondary Areas of Application 135
   Rather Not Recommended for 135
8.15.2 Contraindications 135
8.15.3 Time Frame 135
8.15.4 Biomechanics 135
   Joints 135
   Musculature 136
   Dogs with Osteoarthritis 136
8.15.5 Types 136
8.15.6 Therapeutic Exercises 136
   Exercise 1: Walking on an Incline, Gentle Slope (<15°/~27%) 137
   Exercise 2: Walking on an Incline, Steep Slope (>15°/~27%) 137
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 137
8.16 Declines 137
8.16.1 Applications 137
   Primary Areas of Application 137
   Secondary Areas of Application 137
   Rather Not Recommended for 137
8.16.2 Contraindications 137
8.16.3 Time Frame 137
8.16.4 Biomechanics 138
   Joints 138
   Musculature 138
   Dogs with Osteoarthritis 138
8.16.5 Types 138
8.16.6 Therapeutic Exercises 138
   Exercise 1: Walking on a Decline, Gentle Slope (<15°/~27%) 139
   Exercise 2: Walking on a Decline, Steep Slope (>15°/~27%) 139
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 139
8.17 Ascending Steps 139
8.17.1 Applications 139
   Primary Areas of Application 139
   Secondary Areas of Application 139
   Rather Not Recommended for 139
8.17.2 Contraindications 139
8.17.3 Time Frame 139
8.17.4 Biomechanics 139
   Joint 139
   Musculature 140
8.17.5 Types 140
8.17.6 Therapeutic Exercises 140
   Exercise 1: Ascending Shallow Stairs 140
   Exercise 2: Ascending Steeper Stairs 140
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 140
8.18 Descending Steps 140
8.18.1 Applications 140
   As a General Rule 140
   Primary Areas of Application 140
   Secondary Area of Application 140
   Rather Not Recommended for 140
8.18.2 Contraindications 140
8.18.3 Time Frame 141
8.18.4 Biomechanics: 141
   Joints 141
   Musculature 141
8.18.5 Types 141
8.18.6 Therapeutic Exercises 141
   Exercise 1: Descending Shallow Steps 141
   Exercise 2: Descending Steep Steps 141
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 141
8.19 Platforms and Steps 142
8.19.1 Applications 142
   As a General Rule 142
   Primary Areas of Application (Depending on the Fundamental Exercise) 142
   Secondary Areas of Application (Depending on the Fundamental Exercise) 142
   Rather Not Recommended for 142
8.19.2 Contraindications 142
8.19.3 Time Frame 142
8.19.4 Types 142
8.19.5 Therapeutic Exercises 142
   Exercise 1: Simple Standing Exercises 142
   Exercise 2: More Strenuous Exercises Performed While Standing 142
   Exercise 3: Exercises Performed While Walking 142
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 142
8.20 Walking Across the Slope of a Hill 143
8.20.1 Applications 143
   Primary Areas of Application 143
   Secondary Area of Application 143
   Rather Not Recommended for 143
8.20.2 Contraindications 143
8.20.3 Time Frame 143
8.20.4 Biomechanics 143
8.20.5 Therapeutic Exercises 143
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 143
8.21 Sit-to-Stand 144
8.21.1 Applications 144
   As a General Rule 144
   Primary Areas of Application 144
   Secondary Area of Application 144
   Rather Not Recommended for 144
8.21.2 Contraindications 144
8.21.3 Time Frame 144
8.21.4 Biomechanics 144
8.21.5 Therapeutic Exercise 144
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 145
8.22 Down-to-Stand 145
8.22.1 Applications 145
   Primary Areas of Application 145
   Secondary Area of Application 145
   Rather Not Recommended for 145
8.22.2 Contraindications 145
8.22.3 Time Frame 145
8.22.4 Therapeutic Exercises 145
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 145
8.23 Dancing 146
8.23.1 Applications 146
   As a General Rule 146
   Primary Areas of Application 146
   Secondary Area of Application 146
   Rather Not Recommended for 146
8.23.2 Contraindications 146
8.23.3 Time Frame 146
8.23.4 Biomechanics 146
   Joints 146
8.23.5 Therapeutic Exercises 147
   Exercise 1: Dancing Forwards 147
   Exercise 2: Dancing Backwards 147
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 147
8.24 Wheelbarrowing 147
8.24.1 Applications 147
   As a General Rule 147
   Primary Areas of Application 147
   Secondary Area of Application 147
   Rather Not Recommended for 147
8.24.2 Contraindications 147
8.24.3 Time Frame 148
8.24.4 Biomechanics 148
8.24.5 Therapeutic Exercises 148
   Exercise 1: Wheelbarrowing 148
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 148
8.25 Tunnel, Limbo 148
8.25.1 Applications 148
   Primary Areas of Application 148
   Secondary Area of Application 148
   Rather Not Recommended for 148
8.25.2 Contraindications 149
8.25.3 Time Frame 149
8.25.4 Biomechanics 149
8.25.5 Therapeutic Exercises 149
   Exercise 1: Tunnel, Limbo 149
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 149
8.26 Balls, Peanuts, Donuts 149
8.26.1 Applications 149
   As a General Rule 149
   Primary Areas of Application 149
   Secondary Area of Application 149
   Rather Not Recommended for 149
8.26.2 Contraindications 149
8.26.3 Time Frame 149
8.26.4 Types 149
   Balls 149
   Peanuts 150
   Donuts 150
8.26.5 Therapeutic Exercises 150
   Exercise 1: Ball is Centered Under the
   Dog’s Body 150
   Exercise 2: Ball Under the Chest and the Forelimbs 150
   Exercise 3: Ball Under the Chest and the Hindlimbs 151
   Exercise 4: Dog Lays on the Ball 151
   Exercise 5: Dog Stands or Sits on Top of the Ball 151
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 152
8.27 Wobble Board 152
8.27.1 Applications 152
   As a General rule 152
   Primary Areas of Application 152
   Secondary Areas of Application 152
   Rather Not Recommended for 152
8.27.2 Contraindications 152
8.27.3 Time Frame 152
8.27.4 Types 152
   Multidirectional Board 152
   Bidirectional Board 152
   In General 152
8.27.5 Therapeutic Exercises 152
   Exercise 1: Back and Forth Movement 152
   Exercise 2: Right and Left Movement 153
   Exercise 3: Adding a Proprioceptive
   Wobble Cushion 153
   Exercise 4: 3-Legged Stance 153
   Exercise 5: Circular Movements 153
   Rhythm, Amplitude, Speed 153
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 154
8.28 Proprioceptive Wobble Cushion, Mattress 154
8.28.1 Applications 154
   As a General Rule 154
   Primary Areas of Application 154
   Secondary Areas of Application 154
   Rather Not Recommended for 154
8.28.2 Contraindications 154
8.28.3 Time Frame 154
8.28.4 Types 154
   Proprioceptive Wobble Cushion 154
   Mattresses 154
8.28.5 Functionality 154
8.28.6 Therapeutic Exercises 155
   Exercise 1: Standing 155
   Exercise 2: 3-Legged Stance 155
   Exercise 3: Standing While Weight Shifting 155
   Exercise 4: Moving on the Proprioceptive Wobble Cushion and/or Mattress 155
   Exercise 5: Standing on Two Proprioceptive Cushions 156
   Exercise 6: Walking over a Proprioceptive Wobble  Cushion/Mattress 156
   Exercise 7: Wobble Board with a Proprioceptive Cushion 156
   Exercise 8: Sit-to-Stand on a Proprioceptive Wobble  Cushion/Mattress 156
   Exercise 9: Shaking Hands on a Proprioceptive Wobble  Cushion/Mattress 156
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 156
8.29 Trampoline 157
8.29.1 Applications 157
   Primary Areas of Application 157
   Secondary Area of Application 157
   Rather Not Recommended for 157
8.29.2 Contraindications 157
8.29.3 Time Frame 157
8.29.4 Types 157
8.29.5 Therapeutic Exercises 157
   Exercise 1: Standing on a Moving Trampoline 157
   Exercise 2: Standing and Weight Shifting Using a Gentle Pushing Technique 158
   Exercise 3: Standing and Weight Shifting Using a Treat 158
   Exercise 4: Standing and weight shifting by lifting a limb 158
   Exercise 5: Rhythmic Stabilization 158
   Exercise 6: Sit-to-Stand 158
   Exercise 7: Down-to-Stand 158
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 158
8.30 Cavaletti Rails 159
8.30.1 Applications 159
   Primary Areas of Application 159
   Secondary Areas of application 159
   Rather Not Recommended for 159
8.30.2 Contraindications 159
8.30.3 Time Frame 159
8.30.4 Biomechanics 159
   Joints 159
   Muscular Activity 159
   Dogs with Osteoarthritis 159
8.30.5 Types 160
8.30.6 Therapeutic Exercises 160
   In General 160
   Exercise 1: Rails Placed on the Ground with a Large Amount of Spacing 160
   Exercise 2: Rails Placed on the Ground with a Short Amount of Spacing 160
   Exercise 3: Rails with a Uniform Height 160
   Exercise 4: Rails with Variable Spacing 160
   Exercise 5: Rails with Variable Heights 160
   Additional Exercises 161
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 161
8.31 Vertical Weave Poles, Circling, Figure-Eight
   Walking 161
8.31.1 Applications 161
   As a General Rule 161
   Primary Areas of Application 161
   Secondary Areas of Application 161
   Rather Not Recommended for 161
8.31.2 Contraindications 161
8.31.3 Time Frame 162
8.31.4 Type 162
8.31.5 Therapeutic Exercises 162
   In General 162
   Exercise 1: Vertical Weave Poles 162
   Exercise 2: Circling 162
   Exercise 3: Figure-Eight Walking 162
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 162
8.32 Therabands/Elastic Resistance Bands 162
8.32.1 Applications 162
   As a General Rule 162
   Primary Areas of Application 162
   Secondary Areas of Application 162
   Rather Not Recommended for 162
8.32.2 Contraindications 162
8.32.3 Time Frame 162
8.32.4 Types 163
8.32.5 Therapeutic Exercises 163
   Exercise 1: Targeting Specific Muscle Groups 163
   Exercise 2: Assisting with Movement 163
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 163
8.33 Clinical Applications of Therapeutic Exercises  ...163
8.33.1 ROM and Joint Function 163
8.33.2 Limb Loading 163
8.33.3 Proprioception and Balance 164
8.33.4 Musculature ? Activating, Preserving, Building ...164


9. Land Treadmill 167
9.1 Types of Treadmills 167
9.1.1 Normal Treadmill 167
9.1.2 Treadmills with a Hoist and Harness System (Sling Lifting Device) 167
9.2 Applications 168
   Primary Applications 168
   Secondary Applications 168
   Rather Not Suitable for 168
9.2.1 Contraindications 168
9.3 Standing Exercises 168
9.3.1 Applications 168
   General 168
   Primary Applications 168
   Secondary Applications 168
   Rather Not Suitable for 168
9.3.2 Contraindications 168
9.3.3 Time Frame 168
9.3.4 Therapeutic Exercises 169
   Exercise 1: Weight Shifting Incorporating Gentle Nudges 169
   Exercise 2: Weight Shifting Using Slow Release of Applied Pressure 169
9.4.8 Therapeutic Exercises to Improve Strength and Conditioning 171
   General 171
   Exercise 1: Changing the Speed 172
   Exercise 2: Increasing the Time 172
   Exercise 3: Inclined or Declined Slope 172
   Exercise 4: Weights Attached to the Limbs 172
   Exercise 5: Weights Worn on the Back 172
   Exercise 6: Resistance Bands 172
   Exercise 7: Stepping Over an Outstretched Hand... 172
   Exercise 8: Walking on the Rear Limbs 172
   Exercise 9: The Combination of Load, Speed and Time 172
   Cooling Down 172


10. Aquatic Therapy 175
10.1 Basics 175
10.1.1 Relative Density 175
10.1.2 Buoyancy 175
10.1.3 Hydrostatic Pressure 175
10.1.4 Viscosity and Resistance 175
10.1.5 Surface Tension 175
10.1.6 Technical Safety 175
10.2 Indications 176
10.3 Contraindications 176
10.4 Importance of Water Temperature 176
10.4.1 Underwater Treadmill 176
10.4.2 Swimming 176
10.5 Water Depth and Speed of Movement 176
10.5.1 Human 176
10.5.2 Horses 176
10.6 VO2, Heart Rate, Energy Consumption 177
10.6.1 Underwater Treadmill 177
10.6.2 Swimming 177
10.7 Musculature 178
10.7.1 Underwater Treadmill 178
Human 178
Horses 178
10.7.2 Swimming 178
10.8 Limb Loading, Stride Parameters 178
10.9 Kinematics 178
10.9.1 Underwater Treadmill 178
10.9.2 Swimming 178
10.10 Balance 179
10.11 Osteoarthritis 180
10.11.1 Humans 180
10.11.2 Horses 180
10.11.3 Dogs 180
10.12 Overweight 180
10.12.1 Humans 180
10.12.2 Dogs 180
10.13 Underwater Treadmill ? Standing Exercises 180
10.13.1 Applications 180
   As a General Rule 180
   Primary Areas of Application 180
   Secondary Areas of Application 180
   Rather Not Appropriate for 180
   Examples Include 180
10.13.2 Contraindications 180
10.13.3 Time Frame 181
10.13.4 Therapeutic Exercises 181
   Exercise 1: Standing in Water 181
   Exercise 2: Weight Shifting Using the Motion of Water 181
   Exercise 3: Weight Shifting Using Slow Release of Applied Pressure 181
   Exercise 4: Weight Shifting Using a Quick Release of Applied Pressure 181
   Exercise 5: Weight Shifting Using Treats 181
   Exercise 6: Weight Shifting by Lifting One (3-Legged Stance) or Two Limbs 182
   Exercise 7: Bicycling While Standing 182
   Exercise 8: Inclines 182
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 183
10.14 Underwater Treadmill ? Walking Exercises 183
10.14.1 Applications 183
   As a General Rule 183
   Primary Areas of Application 183
   Secondary Areas of Application 183
   Rather Not Appropriate for 183
10.14.2 Contraindications 183
10.14.3 Time Frame 183
10.14.4 Therapeutic Exercises 183
   Exercise 1: Assisted Walking 183
   Exercise 2: Walking on the Underwater Treadmill...183
   Exercise 3: Weight Shifting While Walking 184
   Exercise 4: Apply Pressure to Specific Muscle Groups 184
   Exercise 5: Changing the Tempo 184
   Exercise 6: Exaggerate the Stride 185
   Exercise 7: Stepping Over an Outstretched Hand...185
   Exercise 8: Varying Water Depths 185
   Exercise 9: Increasing the Duration 185
   Exercise 10: Walking on an Incline 185
   Exercise 11: Weights Attached to the Limbs 185
   Exercise 12: Weights Attached to the Back 185
   Exercise 13: Apply Physical Resistance During Active Exercises 185
   Exercise 14: Therabands 185
   Exercise 15: Working with Countercurrents 186
   Exercise 16: Combining Various Loads, Speed and Time 186
   Frequency and Number of Repetitions for Each Exercise 186
10.14.5 Post Exercise 186
10.15 Exercising in a Pool 186
10.16 Therapeutic Floating Exercises 186
10.16.1 Applications 186
   Primary Areas of Applications 186
   Secondary Areas of Application 186
   Rather Not Appropriate for 186
10.16.2 Contraindications 186
10.16.3 Time Frame 187
10.16.4 Therapeutic Exercises 187
   Exercise 1: Floating 187
   Exercise 2: Passive Exercises for Dogs Floating in Water 187
   Exercise 3: Carefully Position the Floating Dog  Slightly off Balanced in the Water 187
   Exercise 4: Apply Pressure to the Foot Pads 187
10.17 Therapeutic Exercises While Swimming in a Pool 187
10.17.1 Applications 187
   Primary Areas of Application 187
   Secondary Areas of Application 187
   Rather Not Appropriate for 187
10.17.2 Contraindications 187
10.17.3 Time Frame 187
   Exercise 1: Swimming 187
   Exercise 2: Swimming with Weights 187
   Exercise 3: Swimming Against Resistance 187
   Exercise 4: Swimming Against a Countercurrent 187
10.18 Additional Exercises in a Pool 188
10.18.1 Applications 188
   Primary Areas of Application 188
   Secondary Areas of Application 188
   Rather Not Appropriate for 188
10.18.2 Contraindications 188
10.18.3 Time Frame 188
   Exercise 1: Balancing on a Kickboard 188


11. Joint Mobilization in Canines 191
11.1 Basics 191
11.1.1 Definition of Manual Therapy 191
11.1.2 Basic Principles 191
   Types of Motion 191
   Concave and Convex Joint Relationships 191
   Joint End Feels 191
11.2 Techniques 192
11.3 Indications 192
11.4 Contraindications and Precautions 192
11.5 Clinical Application 192
11.5.1 Shoulder Joint 193
11.5.2 Elbow Joint 193
11.5.3 Carpus 194
11.5.4 Hip Joint 196
11.5.5 Stifle Joint 197
11.5.6 Tarsus 197
11.5.7 Spine 198


12. Massage Therapy 203
12.1 Basic 203
12.1.1 Definition 203
12.1.2 Reasons for Massage 203
12.1.3 Biological Effects 203
   Hyperemia 203
   Mechanical Effects 203
   Endogenous Endorphins 203
   Neurological Effects 203
12.1.4 Benefits of Massage 203
12.1.5 Indications 203
12.1.6 Contraindications and Precautions 203
12.2 Massage Techniques 204
12.2.1 Effleurage (Gliding, Stroking) 204
   Effects 204
   Procedure 204
12.2.2 Petrissage (Kneading) 204
   Effects 204
   Procedure 204
12.2.3 Rubbing (Friction) 205
   Effects 205
   Procedure 205
   Circular Pressure (a Subset of Friction Massage).. 205
12.2.4 Shaking, Vibration 205
   Effects 205
   Procedure 205
12.2.5 Percussion/Tapotement (Clapping) 206
   Effects 206
   Procedure 206
12.2.6 Massage Variables 206
   Hands 206
   Pressure 206
   Duration 206
   Frequency 206
   Shape 206
   Speed 206
   Direction 206
12.3 Use of Instruments in Massage 206
12.3.1 Biological Effects 206
   Tissues 206
   Motor Control 206
12.3.2 Safety When Using Instruments 206
12.3.3 Treatment Variables 207
   Tool Grip/Handling 207
   Duration 207
   Frequency 207
   Depth 207
   Vectors 207
   Fluid Capture 207
12.3.4 Indications and Contraindications 207
12.4 Conducting a Massage Session 208
12.4.1 Environment 208
12.4.2 Procedure 208
12.5 Recovery 208
12.6 Athletic Conditioning 208
12.6.1 Pre-Event 208
12.6.2 Post-Event 208
12.7 Myofascial Trigger Points 209
12.7.1 Definition 209
12.7.2 Pathogenesis 209
12.7.3 Diagnosis 209
12.7.4 Treatment 209
Non-Invasive 209
Invasive 209
Treatment Frequency 210
12.7.5 Contraindications and Precautions 210
12.8 Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (Tuina and Acupressure)
12.8.1 Tuina 210
12.8.2 Acupressure 210


13. Superficial Thermal Modalities 213
13.1 Definition 213
13.2 Superficial Heat 213
13.2.1 Definition 213
13.2.2 Physics of Thermotherapy 213
   Hot Packs 213
   Infrared Heat Lamps 213
   Therapeutic Ultrasound 213
   Additional Methods 213
13.2.3 Biological Effects 213
   Blood Vessels 213
   Connective Tissues 213
   Musculature 213
   Nerves 213
   Pain 213
13.2.4 Indications 213
13.2.5 Contraindications and Precautions 213
13.2.6 Equipment 214
   Hot Packs 214
   Infrared Heat Lamps 214
   Additional Methods 215
13.2.7 Treatment Time and Frequency 215
13.3 Cryotherapy 215
13.3.1 Definition 215
13.3.2 Biological Effects 215
   Vasoconstriction 215
   Cell Metabolism 215
   Hunting Response 215
   Pain Relief 215
   Reduction in Muscle Spasms 215
13.3.3 Indications 215
13.3.4 Contraindications and Precautions 215
13.3.5 Equipment 215
   Ice Packs 215
   Cold Packs 215
13.3.6 Treatment Time and Frequency 216


14. Therapeutic Ultrasound 219
14.1 Basics 219
14.1.1 Definition 219
14.1.2 Ultrasound and Medium 219
   Ultrasound and Interfaces 219
   Absorption 219
14.1.3 Generating Ultrasound Waves 219
14.2 Sound Parameters 219
14.2.1 Intensity 219
14.2.2 Ultrasound Modalities 219
14.2.3 Pulse Ratio and Duty cycle 220
14.2.4 Mode and Intensities 220
14.2.5 Frequency 220
14.3 Biological Effects 220
14.3.1 Thermal Effects 220
14.3.2
14.4 Mechanical Effects 220
   Indications 221
14.5 Contraindications and Precautions 221
14.6 Clinical Application 221
14.6.1 Size of the Treatment Area 221
14.6.2 Frequency 221
14.6.3 Mode 221
14.6.4 Intensity 221
14.6.5 Treatment Time 221
14.6.6 Treatment Frequency and Time 221
14.6.7 Coupling 222
14.6.8 Application Techniques 222
14.7 Phonophoresis 223
14.7.1 Definition 223
14.7.2 Biological Basis 223
14.7.3 Indications 223
14.7.4 Contraindications 223
14.7.5 Clinical Application 223


15. Electrical Stimulation 227
15.1 Basics 227
15.1.1 Definition 227
15.1.2 Terminology 227
15.1.3 Electrical Current Parameters 227
   Pulse Parameters 227
   Pulse and Phase Duration 227
   Waveform 227
   Pulse Interval (ON/OFF Time) 227
   Ramp Up/Down 228
   Specific Types of Current 228
15.2 Biological Effects 228
15.2.1 Motor Response 228
15.2.2 Muscle 228
15.2.3 Blood Flow 228
15.2.4 Analgesia 228
15.3 Indications 229
15.4 Contraindications and Precautions 229
15.5 Electrodes 229
15.6 Pain Therapy 229
15.6.1 TENS 229
   High-Frequency, Low-Intensity TENS 229
   High-Intensity, Low-Frequency TENS 229
   Burst TENS 230
   Modulated TENS 230
15.6.2 Interferential and Pre-Modulated Interferential Currents 230
15.6.3 Electrode Placement 230
15.6.4 Treatment Parameters 230
   Choosing the Appropriate Type of Electrical  Stimulator 230
   Planning the Treatment Frequency, Intensity and Duration 230
15.6.5 Select the Treatment Area 231
   Local Placement of the Electrode 231
   Segmental Placement of the Electrodes 232
15.6.6 Treatment Procedure 233
   Clinical or Home Treatment? 234
15.7 Muscle Reeducation 234
15.7.1 Clinical Use 234
15.7.2 Contraindications and Precautions 234
15.7.3 Voluntary Verses Electrically Provoked  Contractions 234
15.7.4 A Summary of Stimulator Parameters 235
   Duration 235
   Frequency 235
   Pulse Interval (ON/OFF Time) 235
   Amplitude 235
   Ramp 235
   Placement of the Electrodes 235
   Factors That Influence Contractions 235
15.7.5 General Recommendations 236
15.7.6 Side Effects/Adverse Effects 236
15.8 Electrotherapy in Patients with Flaccid Paralysis 236
15.9 Iontophoresis 236


16. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) 239
16.1 Definition 239
16.2 Technical Aspects 239
16.2.1 Shockwave Generation 239
   Focused 239
   Radial 239
16.3 Biological Effects 239
16.4 Indications 240
16.5 Contraindications and Precautions 240
16.6 Treatment Procedure 241
16.6.1 Basics 241
16.6.2 Patient Preparation 241
16.6.3 Treatment 241
16.6.4 Sample Focused Shockwave Protocols 241
16.6.5 Sample Radial Shockwave Protocols 241
16.6.6 Treatment Frequency 241
16.6.7 Side Effects of ESWT 241


17. Laser Therapy 245
17.1 Basics 245
17.2 Laser Emission and Tissues 245
17.3 General Information About Laser Emission
and Treatment Parameters 247
17.3.1 Pulsed vs. Continuous lasers 247
17.3.2 Treatment Parameter Considerations 248
   Wavelength 248
   Energy Density 248
   Pulsed Laser 248
   Application Technique 248
   Depth of Penetration 248
17.3.3 Recommendations 248
17.4 Biological Effects 248
17.4.1 Photochemical Interaction 249
17.4.2 Photothermal Interaction 249
17.4.3 Photomechanical Interaction 249
17.5 Therapeutic Effects 250
17.5.1 Anti-Inflammatory Effect 250
17.5.2 Anti-Edema Effect ............ 250
17.5.3 Analgesic Effect ........... 250
17.5.4 Stimulation of Tissue Repair .......... 250
17.6 Clinical Use of Laser Therapy .........251
17.6.1 Prior to Use ................251
17.6.2 Treatment ..............251
17.6.3 Suggested Doses ..............251
17.6.4 Precautions .............. 252


18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Therapy 255
18.1 Basic Information ............ 255
18.2 Magnetic Resonance Therapy ........ 256
18.3 Scientific Principles ............. 256
18.3.1 Clinical Studies ............ 258
   Back Pain ............... 258
   Osteoarthritis ............ 258
   Osteoporosis ............. 258
18.3.2 In Vitro Studies ........... 258
   Fibroblasts ................. 258
   Chondrocytes ............ 258
   Chronobiology ............... 258
   Research in Progress ............ 258
18.4 Indications ................ 258
18.5 Contraindications and Precautions ....... 258
18.6 Clinical Applications ............ 259 


19. Kinesiology Taping 263
19.1 Definition .............. 263
19.2 Principles of Kinesiology Taping ........ 263
19.2.1 What is Tape? ................ 263
   How is Tape Made? ........... 263
19.2.2 Biological Effects of Kinesiology Taping ....... 263
   Tissue Decompression ......... 263
   Stimulation of Sensory Nerves ........ 263
   Nociception ............... 264
19.2.3 Indications ............... 264
19.2.4 Contraindications/Precautions ........ 264
19.3 How to Tape Effectively .......... 264
19.4 Taping Techniques ........... 264
19.4.1 Taping for Pain Mitigation ........... 265
   Goal ............... 265
   Procedure ............. 265
   Indications ................. 265
19.4.2 Taping for Inflammation/Edema ....... 266
   Goal ............... 266
   Procedure .............. 266
   Indications ................. 266
19.4.3 Taping for Neurosensory Awareness/Posture ..... 267
   Goal ............... 267
   Procedure .............. 267
   Indications ................. 267
19.4.4 Once the Tape is Applied ............ 267 


20. Veterinary Orthotics and Prosthetics in Practice 271
20.1 Basics .................271
20.1.1 Definitions .............271
   Orthotics .................271
   Prosthetics .............271
20.2 Orthoses ................271
20.2.1 Types of Orthoses ............ 272
20.2.2 Clinical Case Scenarios .......... 272
   Rehabilitative and Prophylactic orthosis ..... 272
   Functional orthosis ........... 272
   Prophylactic ............... 272
20.2.3 Casting for Custom Rigid Orthoses ....... 273
   Materials for Casting ............. 273
   Preparing for Casting .............274
   Patient Preparation for Casting ........274
   Patient Positioning .............274
   Casting for an Orthosis ............. 275
   Limb Positioning During Casting .......... 275
   Final Preparation of Cast Mold .........276
20.2.4 Fitting and Introducing an Orthosis ...... 277
   Initial Orthotic Fitting .......... 277
   Initial Orthotic Wearing Instructions ...... 277
20.2.5 General Orthotic Wear ............ 277
20.2.6 Possible Orthotic Complications ....... 278
   Risk Factors ............... 278
   Prevention ............. 278
   Diagnosis for Mechanical Improper Alignment .. 278
   Correction of the Device .......... 279
20.3 Prosthesis ................ 280
20.3.1 Prosthesis Case Selection .......... 280
20.3.2 Prosthesis Manufacturers and Device Types .. 280
20.3.3 Exoskeletal and Endoskeletal Prostheses .... 280
20.3.4 General Types of Prosthesis ........... 280
20.3.5 Case Selection and Surgical Planning for Prostheses ................ 280
20.3.6 Casting and Measuring for a Prosthesis ...281
   Preparation .................281
   Submitting the Final Cast Mold ........281
20.3.7 Fitting and Introduction ...........281
   General Tips for Prosthesis Wear ....... 282
   Introducing the Prosthesis ........... 282
   Monitoring the Prosthesis and Residuum ...... 282
   Prosthesis Modifications .......... 283
20.4 Therapeutic Exercise with Orthotics and Prosthetics ............... 283


21. Regenerative Medicine and Biological Treatment Approaches 287
21.1 Why Regenerative and Biological Therapies? .. 287
21.2 Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) ......... 287
21.2.1 Basics ................ 287
21.2.2 Production of PRP ........... 287
21.2.3 Uses for PRP ............ 288
21.2.4 Clinical Application of PRP ......... 288
21.3 IRAP ............... 289 
21.4 Stem Cells   289
21.4.1 Production   289
   In-House Systems   289
   Culture Expansion   289
21.4.2 Legal Regulations   290
   USA   290
   Europe/Asia   290
21.4.3 AD-MSC (SVF)   290
   Production   290
21.4.4 BM-MSC (BMAC)   290
   Production   290
21.4.5 Advantages and Disadvantages   290
   AD-MSC (SVF)   290
   BM-MSC (BMAC)   291
21.4.6 Uses for MSC   291
21.4.7 Clinical Application of MSC   291
21.4.8 Combined Stem Cells and PRP Injections   291
21.5 Principles of Joint Injections   292
21.5.1 Basics   292
21.5.2 Injecting Specific Joints   292
   Shoulder   292
   Elbow   292
   Carpus   293
   Hip   293
   Stifle   293
   Tarsus   294
21.6 Research in PRP and MSC   294
21.7 Rehabilitation Following Treatment with Regenerative Therapies   297
21.7.1 Principles   297
21.7.2 Special Considerations   297
   Laser   297
   Cryotherapy   297
   Other Modalities   297
   Sample Rehabilitation Protocol   297


22. Magnet Therapy - Static Magnetic Fields (SMF) and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) 301
22.1 Introduction 301
22.2 Basics 301
22.3 Types of Magnetic Fields 301
22.3.1 Static or Permanent Magnetic Fields (SMF/PMF) 301
Research to the Effects of SMF 302
22.3.2 Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) 302
Research to the Effects of PEMF 302
22.4 Method of Application 304
22.5 Contraindications 305


23. Diet and Weight Management in Physiotherapy 309
23.1 Obesity in the Rehabilitation Patient 309
23.1.1 Biology of Obesity 309
Hormones and Appetite 309
Adipose Tissue 309
Endocrinology of Adipose Tissue 309
23.1.2 Common Weight Loss Protocols 310
Body Condition Score 310
Diet History 310
Calculation for Weight Loss 311
Expected Weight Loss 311
Once Ideal Weight is Achieved 311
23.1.3 Role of Exercise in Weight Loss and
Osteoarthritis 312
Exercise and Joints 312
23.1.4 Dietary Approaches for Success 312
Prescription Diets 312
Drugs That Block Fat Absorption 312
Over the Counter Foods Versus Therapeutic Diets. 312
Reduced Fat 313
Protein and Lean Mass 313
Fiber and Extrusion 314
Adjustments to the Current Feeding Regimen 314
Water and Canned Food 314
Cooked/Raw Diet (BARF) 314
Nutraceuticals and Obesity 314
Treats 314
23.2 Nutrition in Gerontology and Rehabilitation 315
23.2.1 Sarcopenia 315
Protein Requirement in Aged Dogs 315
Exercise and Sarcopenia 315
23.2.2 Nutraceutical Use in Canine Osteoarthritis 316
Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate 316
Green Lipped Mussel 316
Undenatured Collagen-II 316
Avocado/Soybean Unsaponifiables 317
Omega-3 Fatty Acids 317
Boswellia Serrata 318
Turmeric Root 318
Dimethylsulfone/Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) 318
Collagen Hydrolysate 318
African Devil’s Claw 318
Elk Antler Velvet 318
23.2.3 Dietetic Foods and Osteoarthritis 319
23.3 Basic Nutrition for the Sporting Dog 319
23.3.1 Body Condition Score in Sporting Dogs 319
23.3.2 Energy and Activity 319
Fuels for ATP Generation: Fat and Carbohydrate 319
Protein 320
Fat and Carbohydrates 320
Electrolytes, Minerals and Vitamins 320
Vitamins 320


24. The Home Environment 325
24.1 In the Home .............. 325
24.1.1 Nonslip Flooring .............. 325
24.1.2 Stairs ................. 325
24.1.3 Resting and Sleeping Area ......... 325
24.1.4 Bed and Sofa ............ 325
24.1.5 Feeding Area ................ 325
24.2 The Car .................. 325
24.3 Walking Aids ............ 325
24.4 Abraded Nails and Dorsal Paws ......... 326


25. The Owner’s Role in Physiotherapy 329
25.1 Basic Concept .............. 329
25.2 Prerequisites ............ 329
25.2.1 Owner ................ 329
25.2.2 Animal ............... 329
25.2.3 Therapist ............... 329
25.3 Home Treatment Modalities ........... 329
25.3.1 Superficial Thermotherapy ......... 329
25.3.2 Massage ................ 329
25.3.3 Therapeutic Exercises ............ 329
25.3.4 Electrical Stimulation ......... 330
25.4 Sample Home Treatment Protocols ...... 330
25.4.1 Arthritis and Spondylosis .......... 330
25.4.2 Cranial Cruciate Rupture
(After Suture Removal) ............ 330
25.4.3 Intervertebral Disk Surgery (After Suture Removal) ..... 330
25.4.4 Degenerative Myelopathy ............331
25.4.5 Fractures ................331


26. Choosing the Right Therapy - Practical Tips from the Expert 335
26.1 Orthopedic Conditions, Surgical ....... 335
26.1.1 Acute, Early Stages - Typically Day 0-10 ... 335
26.1.2 Middle Stages - Typically Day 10-45 ..... 335
26.1.3 Late Stages ............... 335
26.2 Orthopedic Disorders, Non-Surgical ..... 336
26.2.1 Acute Stages- Typically Day 0-10 ....... 336
26.2.2 Middle Stages - Typically Day 10-45 .... 336
26.2.3 Late Stages .......... 337
26.3 Neurological Disorders, Surgical ....... 337
26.3.1 Acute Stages - Typically Day 0-21 ..... 337
26.3.2 Middle Stage - Typically Day 7-45 ......... 338
26.3.3 Late Stages .......... 338
26.4 Neurologic Conditions, Non-Surgical ...... 338
26.4.1 Neurologic Rehabilitation of Non-Surgical Severe Deficits ..... 339
26.4.2 Neurologic Rehabilitation of Non-Surgical Moderate Deficits .... 339
26.4.3 Neurologic Rehabilitation of Non-Surgical Mild Deficits ..... 339


27. The Athletic Dog in Physiotherapy 343
27.1 Types of Canine Sports ........... 343
27.1.1 Agility ................ 343
   Common Injuries ...... 343
27.1.2 Hoopers Agility ............ 344
27.1.3 Mobility .................. 344
27.1.4 Obedience ................. 344
   Common Injuries ........ 344
   Working Trials ...... 344
   Rally Obedience ........ 344
27.1.5 Dog Dancing ........ 344
27.1.6 Lunging ........... 344
27.1.7 Tracking ......... 344
27.1.8 Mantrailing ........ 344
27.1.9 Search and Rescue Dogs ............ 345
   Common Injuries .......... 345
27.1.10 Hunting Dogs ........ 345
   Common Injuries ....... 345
27.1.11 Flyball .......... 345
   Common Injuries .......... 345
27.1.12 Frisbee Dog/Disc Dog ...... 345
   Common Injuries ........ 346
27.1.13 Schutzhund/IPO Sport ........... 346
27.1.14 Canine Herding ............ 346
27.1.15 Treibball ............... 346
27.1.16 Turnierhundsport (THS) .......... 346
27.1.17 Drafting ................. 346
27.1.18 Canicross .............. 346
27.1.19 Bikejoering, Scooterjoering/Scootering,    Skijoering, Trike-, Wagon- or Cart Racing ..... 346
27.1.20 Sled Dogs (Mushing) .......... 347
   Common Injuries ..... 347
27.1.21 Greyhound Racing ......... 347
   Common Injuries ....... 347
27.2 Specific Injuries in Canine Athletes ...... 348
27.2.1 Injury to the Muscles ? General Information .. 348
   Partial or Complete Muscle Tear ........ 348
   “Muscle Strains” ......... 349
   Muscle Contusion .......... 350
27.2.2 Injuries of Specific Muscles ........ 350
   Insertional Tendinopathy of the Supraspinous ... 350
   Contracture of the Infraspinosus Muscle ... 350
   Tendinopathy of the Proximal Biceps Tendon .....351
   Biceps Brachii Avulsion .......351
   Luxation of the Biceps Tendon ....... 352
   Medial Humeral Epicondylitis ..... 352
   Insertional Tendinopathy of the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle ..... 353
   Avulsion of the Long Head of the Triceps Brachii Muscle ... 353
   Injury of the Iliopsoas Muscle ....... 353
   Injury to the Adductor Longus Muscle .... 354
   Tear of the Gracilis Muscle ....... 354
   Myopathy of the Semitendinosus and Semimembranosus Muscle .. 355
   Injury of the Long Digital Extensor Muscle ..... 355
   Tear/Avulsion of the Gastrocnemius Muscle ...... 356
   Gastrocnemius Tendinopathy .... 356
   Tear or Rupture of the Common Calcaneal Tendon (Achilles Tendon) .... 357
   Achillodynia ........ 357
   Superficial Digital Flexor Displacement ...... 357
27.2.3 Injuries to the Ligaments ........... 358
   Torn Ligaments ...... 358
   Sprained Ligaments .... 358
27.2.4 Fractures   359
   Carpal Fractures   359
   Tarsal Fractures   359
   Tarsal/Hock Injuries   360
   Nonarticular Fractures of the Long Bones   360
   Stress Fractures  361
27.2.5 Shoulder   361
   Medial Shoulder Syndrome and Medial Shoulder Instability   361
27.2.6 Elbow   362
   Medial Elbow Compartment Injuries   362
27.2.7 Carpal Joint   363
   Carpal Joint Sprain   363
   Carpal Hyperextension   363
27.2.8 Stifle   363
   Traumatic Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture   363
   Posterior Cruciate Rupture, Caudal Cruciate Ligament Tear   364
27.2.9 Tarsus   365
   Plantar Ligament Rupture   365
27.2.10 Injuries to the Paw   365
27.2.11 Injuries to the Digits   365
   Phalangeal Luxations with Sprain or Tear of the Collateral Ligaments   366
   Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon Ruptures
   (“Dropped Toe, Flat Toe”)   366
   Deep Digital Flexor Tendon Ruptures
   (“Knocked up, Kicked up Toe”)   366
   Tendinitis of the Digital Flexors   366
27.2.12 Acute Caudal Myopathy   366
27.2.13 Acute Hindlimb Paralysis   366
27.3 Path from Rehabilitation Back to Training 367
27.3.1 Advanced Exercises to Complement Those Described in the Chapter Entitled “Active Therapeutic Exercises” 367
   Shake Hands 367
   Standing Uphill/Downhill 368
   Slow Walks/Walking on Various Surfaces 368
   Walking Backwards 368
   Weights 368
   Pulling 368
   Walking Uphill 368
   Walking Downhill 368
   Stairs 368
   Slopes - Walking Perpendicular to the Slope 368
   Sit-to-Stand 368
   Down-to-Stand 369
   Wheelbarrow and Dancing 369
   Balls/Peanut Balls/Donuts 369
   Mats/Proprioception Cushion/Trampoline 369
   Weaves/Circling/Figure-8s 369
   Therabands 370
27.3.2 Water Therapy 370
   Underwater Treadmill 370
   Swimming 370
27.3.3 Land Treadmill 370
27.3.4 Additional Exercise Options 370
   Tugging 370
   Digging 370
   Beg-to-Standing-on-Hind-Legs 370
   Sit-Ups 370
   Side Sit-Ups 370
   Squats 371
   Recall 371
27.3.5 Training Using Various Agility Obstacles 371
   Tunnels and Pipe Tunnels 371
   A-Frame 371
   Dog Walk 371
   Seesaw 371
   Jumping Obstacles 371
   Weave Poles 372
27.3.6 Warming up and Cooling down 372
   Warming up 372
   Cool Down 372


28. Treatment  Plans 375
28.1 A Guide to Using This Chapter 375
28.1.1 Introduction 375
28.1.2 The Path Leading to a Treatment Plan 375
   Step 1: Create a Problem List 375
   Step 2: Choose a Modality 375
   Step 3: Choosing Therapeutic Exercises 376
   Step 4: Distinct Features of Specific Diseases 377
28.2 General Treatment Plan for the Forelimb 378
28.2.1 Pain 378
28.2.2 Swelling 378
28.2.3 Tissue Healing and Regeneration 378
28.2.4 Secondary Muscular Tension 379
28.2.5 Range of Motion and Joint Function 379
28.2.6 Limb Loading 380
28.2.7 Proprioception and Balance 381
28.2.8 Musculature: Activation of Atrophic Musculature and Promotion of Strength and Endurance 383
28.3 Scapula 384
28.3.1 Anatomy 384
   Bone Type 384
   Bones 384
   Joints 384
   Palpable Bone Structures 384
   Movement 384
   Muscles 384
28.3.2 Fractures 389
   Definition 389
   Clinical Signs 389
   Diagnosis 389
   Conservative Treatment 389
   Surgical Treatment 389
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 389
28.3.3 Luxation 390
   Definition 390
   Clinical Signs 390
   Diagnosis 390
   Conservative Treatment 390
   Surgical Treatment 390
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 390
28.3.4 Avulsion of the Long Head of the Triceps
   Brachii Muscle 390
   Definition 390
   Clinical Signs 390
   Diagnosis 390
   Conservative Treatment 390
   Surgical Treatment 391
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 391
28.4 Shoulder Joint .....391
28.4.1 Anatomy ...391
Joint Type .......391
Bones .....391
Articulation ...... 392
Joint Capsule ....... 392
Ligaments .... 392
Movements ...... 393
Muscles .... 393
Nerve Supply ....... 395
28.4.2 Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Proximal Humerus ...... 395
Definition ...... 395
Clinical Signs ....... 395
Diagnosis ...... 395
Conservative Treatment .. 395
Surgical Treatment .... 395
Special Considerations Within the
Rehabilitation Plan ..... 395
28.4.3 Medial Shoulder Syndrome/Medial Shoulder Instability .... 396
   Definition ...... 396
   Clinical Signs ....... 396
   Diagnosis ...... 396
   Conservative Treatment .. 396
   Surgical Treatment .... 396
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..... 396
28.4.4 Insertional Tendinopathy of the
   Supraspinous Muscle ... 397
   Definition ...... 397
   Clinical Signs ....... 397
   Diagnosis ...... 397
   Conservative Treatment .. 397
   Surgical Treatment .... 397
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..... 397
28.4.5 Contracture of the Infraspinous Muscle ..... 398
   Definition ...... 398
   Clinical Signs ....... 398
   Diagnosis ...... 398
   Conservative Treatment .. 398
   Surgical Treatment .... 398
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..... 398
28.4.6 Tendinopathy of the Proximal Biceps Tendon .. 398
   Definition ...... 398
   Clinical Signs ....... 398
   Diagnosis ...... 398
   Conservative Treatment .. 398
   Surgical Treatment .... 399
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..... 399
28.4.7 Luxation of the Biceps Tendon ... 399
   Definition ...... 399
   Clinical Signs ....... 399
   Diagnosis ...... 399
   Conservative Treatment .. 400
   Surgical Treatment .... 400
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..... 400
28.4.8 Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder Joint ..... 400
   Definition ...... 400
   Clinical Signs ....... 400
   Diagnosis ...... 400
   Conservative Treatment .. 400
   Surgical Treatment .... 400
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..... 400
28.5 Upper Arm ...401
28.5.1 Anatomy ...401
   Bone Type ......401
   Characteristics ....401
   Articular Surfaces ......401
   Palpable Bone Structures ...401
   Muscles .... 403
28.5.2 Articular, Physeal and Metaphyseal Humeral Fractures ...... 405
   Definition ...... 405
   Clinical Signs ....... 405
   Diagnosis ...... 405
   Conservative Treatment .. 405
   Surgical Treatment .... 405
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..... 405
28.5.3 Diaphyseal Fractures and Supracondylar Fractures ... 405
   Definition ...... 405
   Clinical Signs ....... 405
   Diagnosis ...... 406
   Conservative Treatment .. 406
   Surgical Treatment .... 406
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..... 406
28.5.4 Osteosarcoma ....... 406
   Definition ...... 406
   Clinical Signs ....... 406
   Diagnosis ...... 406
   Conservative Treatment .. 406
   Surgical Treatment .... 406
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..... 406
28.6 Elbow Joint ..... 406
28.6.1 Anatomy ....... 406
   Joint Type ...... 406
   Bones .... 406
   Articulation ...... 406
   Joint Capsule ....... 406
   Ligaments .... 406
   Movements ...... 409
   Muscles .... 409
   Nerve Supply .....411
28.6.2 Elbow Dysplasia .... 412
   Definition ....... 412
   Clinical Signs ... 412
   Diagnosis ....... 412
   Conservative Treatment ... 412
   Surgical Treatment ..... 412
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan .. 412
28.6.3 Medial Elbow Compartment Injuries 413
   Definition 413
   Clinical Signs 413
   Diagnosis 413
   Conservative Treatment 413
   Surgical Treatment 413
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 413
28.6.4 Traumatic Elbow Luxation 413
   Definition 413
   Clinical Signs 413
   Diagnosis 414
   Conservative Treatment 414
   Surgical Treatment 414
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 414
28.6.5 Osteoarthritis of the Elbow Joint 414
   Definition 414
   Clinical Signs 414
   Diagnosis 414
   Conservative Treatment 414
   Surgical Treatment 414
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 415
28.7 Forearm 415
28.7.1 Anatomy of the Radius 415
   Bone Type 415
   Characteristics 415
   Articular Surfaces 417
   Palpable Bone Structures 417
   Particularities 417
28.7.2 Anatomy of the Ulna 418
   Bone Type 418
   Characteristics 418
   Articular Surfaces 418
   Palpable Bone Structures 418
   Particularities 418
28.7.3 Muscles of the Forearm 419
28.7.4 Radius and Ulna Fractures 423
   Definition 423
   Clinical Signs 423
   Diagnosis 423
   Conservative Treatment 423
   Surgical Treatment 423
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 423
28.7.5 Short Radius and Short Ulna Syndrome (Distractio Cubiti) 424
   Definition 424
   Clinical Signs 424
   Diagnosis 424
   Conservative Treatment 424
   Surgical Treatment 424
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 424
28.7.6 Avulsion of the Biceps Brachii Muscle 425
   Definition 425
   Clinical Signs 425
   Diagnosis 425
   Conservative Treatment 425
   Surgical Treatment 425
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 425
28.7.7 Insertional Tendinopathy of the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris 425
   Definition 425
   Clinical Signs 425
   Diagnosis 425
   Conservative  Treatment 425
   Surgical Treatment 425
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 426
28.8 Carpal Joint, Metacarpus and Digits 427
28.8.1 Carpal Bones (Ossa Carpi) 427
   Bone Type 427
   Characteristics 427
   Joint Surface 427
   Palpable Bone Structures 427
28.8.2 Anatomy of the Carpal Joint 427
   Joint Type 427
   Bones 427
   Articulations 428
   Joint Capsule 428
   Ligaments 428
   Movements 428
   Muscles 428
   Nerval Supply 431
28.8.3 Metacarpal Bones (Ossa Metacarpalia) 431
   Bone Type 431
   Characteristics 431
   Articular Surfaces 431
   Palpable Bone Structures 431
28.8.4 Anatomy of Digital Bones 431
   Bone Type 431
   Characteristics 431
   Articular Surfaces 431
   Palpable Bone Structures 431
   Particularities 431
28.8.5 Anatomy of the Digital Joints 431
   Joint Type 431
   Bones 431
   Articulations 431
   Joint Capsule 431
   Ligaments 431
   Movements 431
   Muscles 432
   Nerve Supply 432
28.8.6 Carpal Fractures 432
   Definition 432
   Clinical Signs 432
   Diagnosis 432
   Conservative  Treatment 432
   Surgical Treatment 432
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 433
28.8.7 Carpal Joint Sprain 433
   Definition 433
   Clinical Signs 433
   Diagnosis 433
   Conservative  Treatment 433
   Surgical Treatment 433
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 433
28.8.8 Carpal Hyperextension 433
   Definition 433
   Clinical Signs 433
   Diagnosis 433
   Conservative Treatment 433
   Surgical Treatment 433
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 434
28.8.9 Collateral Ligament Injuries 434
   Definition 434
   Clinical Signs 434
   Diagnosis 434
   Conservative Treatment 434
   Surgical Treatment 434
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 434
28.8.10 Tendinopathy of the Abductor Pollicis Longus 435
   Definition 435
   Clinical Signs 435
   Diagnosis 435
   Conservative Treatment 435
   Surgical Treatment 435
    Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 435
28.8.11 Carpal Laxity Syndrome 435
   Definition 435
   Clinical Signs 435
   Diagnosis 435
   Conservative Treatment 435
   Surgical Treatment 435
    Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 435
28.8.12 Osteoarthritis of the Carpal Joint 436
   Definition 436
   Clinical Signs 436
   Diagnosis 436
   Conservative Treatment 436
   Surgical Treatment 436
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 436
28.8.13 Arthrodesis 436
   Definition 436
   Surgical Treatment 436
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 437
28.8.14 Metacarpal Fractures 437
   Definition 437
   Clinical Signs 437
   Diagnosis 437
   Conservative Treatment 437
   Surgical Treatment 437
    Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 437
28.8.15 Sesamoid Bone Fractures 438
   Definition 438
   Clinical Signs 438
   Diagnosis 438
   Conservative Treatment 438
   Surgical Treatment 438
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 438
28.8.16 Osteoarthritis of the Metacarpophalangeal
   Joint 439
   Definition 439
   Clinical Signs 439
   Diagnosis 439
   Conservative Treatment 439
   Surgical Treatment 439
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 439
28.8.17 Fractures and Luxations of the Digits 440
   Definition 440
   Clinical Signs 440
   Diagnosis 440
   Conservative Treatment 440
   Surgical Treatment 440
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 440
28.8.18 Tendon Injuries in the Digits/Phalanges 441
   Definition 441
   Clinical Signs 441
   Diagnosis 441
   Conservative Treatment 441
   Surgical Treatment 441
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 441
28.9 General Treatment Plan for the Hindlimb 442
28.9.1 Pain 442
28.9.2 Swelling 442
28.9.3 Tissue Healing and Regeneration 442
28.9.4 Secondary Muscular Tension 443
28.9.5 Range of Motion and Joint Function 443
28.9.6 Limb Loading 444
28.9.7 Proprioception and Balance 445
28.9.8 Musculature: Activation of Atrophic Musculature and Promotion of Strength
and Endurance 447
28.10 Hip Bone (Os Coxae) 448
28.10.1 Anatomy 448
   Bone Type 448
   Characteristics 448
   Articular Surfaces 449
   Palpable Bone Structures 449
   Particularities 449
28.10.2 Sacroiliac Joint (Articulatio Sacroiliaca)   449
   Joint Type 449
   Bones 449
   Articulation 449
   Joint Capsule 449
   Ligaments 449
   Movements 449
28.10.3 Muscles 449
28.10.4 Pelvic Fractures 454
   Definition 454
   Clinical Signs 454
   Diagnosis 454
   Conservative Treatment 454
   Surgical Treatment 454
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 454
28.10.5 Injury of the Iliopsoas Muscle 455
   Definition 455
   Clinical Signs 455
   Diagnosis 455
   Conservative Treatment 455
   Surgical Treatment 455
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 455
28.11 Hip Joint ................ 456
28.11.1 Anatomy ................ 456
   Joint Type ............... 456
   Bones ................. 456
   Articulation ................ 456
   Joint Capsule ............. 456
   Ligaments .............. 456
   Movements ................ 457
   Muscles .................. 457
   Innervation ................. 462
28.11.2 Hip Dysplasia ................ 462
   Definition ............... 462
   Clinical Signs ............. 462
   Diagnosis ............... 462
   Conservative Treatment ............ 462
   Surgical Treatment ............ 462
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan .............. 462
28.11.3 Luxation ................. 464
   Definition ............... 464
   Clinical Signs ............. 464
   Diagnosis ............... 464
   Conservative Treatment ............ 464
   Surgical Treatment ............ 464
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan .............. 464
28.11.4 Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease ........... 465
   Definition ............... 465
   Clinical Signs ............. 465
   Diagnosis ............... 465
   Conservative Treatment ............ 465
   Surgical Treatment ............ 465
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan .............. 465
28.11.5 Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joint ....... 465
   Definition ............... 465
   Clinical Signs ............. 465
   Diagnosis ............... 465
   Conservative Treatment ............ 465
   Surgical Treatment ............ 465
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan .............. 465
28.12 Thigh .................. 466
28.12.1 Anatomie ............... 466
   Bone type .............. 466
   Characteristics .............. 467
   Articular Surfaces ............. 467
   Palpable Bone Structures ........ 467
   Muskeln .................. 468
28.12.2 Femoral Fractures ............471
   Definition ................471
   Clinical Signs ..............471
   Diagnosis ................471
   Conservative Treatment .............471
   Surgical Treatment ...........471
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..........471
28.12.3 Quadriceps Contracture ..........471
   Definition ................471
   Clinical Signs ..............471
   Diagnosis ................471
   Conservative Treatment .............471
   Surgical Treatment .............471
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ? Prevention Plan ....... 472
28.12.4 Injury to the Adductor Longus Muscle ..... 472
   Definition ............... 472
   Clinical Signs ............. 472
   Diagnosis ............... 472
   Conservative Treatment ............ 472
   Surgical Treatment ............ 472
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan .............. 472
28.12.5 Tear of the Gracilis Muscle ......... 473
   Definition ............... 473
   Clinical Signs ............. 473
   Diagnosis ............... 473
   Conservative Treatment ............ 473
   Surgical Treatment ............ 473
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan .............. 473
28.12.6 Myopathy of the Semitendinous, Semimembranous, and Gracilis Muscle ....... 473
   Definition ............... 473
   Clinical Signs ............. 473
   Diagnosis ................474
   Conservative Treatment .............474
   Surgical Treatment .............474
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan ..........474
28.13 Stifle Joint ..............474
28.13.1 Anatomy .................474
   Joint Type ................474
   Bones ..................474
   Menisci ...............476
   Articulations ...............476
   Joint Capsule ..............476
   Ligaments ...............476
   Primary Movement ............476
   Muscles .................. 479
   Innervation ................. 482
28.13.2 Rupture of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament ... 482
   Definition ............... 482
   Clinical Signs ............. 482
   Diagnosis ............... 483
   Conservative Treatment ............ 483
   Surgical Treatment ............ 483
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan .............. 483
28.13.3 Avulsion of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament ...... 485
   Definition ............... 485
   Clinical Signs ............. 485
   Diagnosis ............... 485
   Conservative Treatment .......... 485
   Surgical Treatment ............ 485
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan .............. 485
28.13.4 Posterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture ....... 486
   Definition ............... 486
   Clinical Signs ............. 486
   Diagnosis ............... 486
   Conservative Treatment ............ 486
   Surgical Treatment ............ 486
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan .............. 486
28.13.5 Injuries of the Collateral Ligaments 486
   Definition 486
   Clinical Signs 486
   Diagnosis 486
   Conservative Treatment 486
   Surgical Treatment 486
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 486
28.13.6 Multiple Ligament Injuries 487
   Definition 487
   Clinical Signs 487
   Diagnosis 487
   Conservative Treatment 487
   Surgical Treatment 487
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 487
28.13.7 Patella Luxation 487
   Definition 487
   Clinical Signs 487
   Diagnosis 487
   Conservative Treatment 487
   Surgical Treatment 487
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 488
28.13.8 Patella Fractures and Ligament Injuries 488
   Definition 488
   Clinical Signs 488
   Diagnosis 488
   Conservative Treatment 488
   Surgical Treatment 488
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 489
28.13.9 Osteochondrosis Dissecans 489
   Definition 489
   Clinical Signs 489
   Diagnosis 489
   Conservative Treatment 489
   Surgical Treatment 489
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 489
28.13.10 Avulsion and Luxation of the Long Digital Extensor Muscle   490
   Definition 490
   Clinical Signs 490
   Diagnosis 490
   Conservative Treatment 490
   Surgical Treatment 490
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 490
28.13.11 Avulsion of the Gastrocnemius Muscle at Its Origin 490
   Definition 490
   Clinical Signs 490
   Diagnosis 490
   Conservative Treatment 490
   Surgical Treatment 490
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 491
28.13.12 Insertional Tendinopathy of the Gastrocnemius Muscle 491
   Definition 491
   Clinical Signs 491
   Diagnosis 491
   Conservative Treatment 491
   Surgical Treatment 491
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 491
28.13.13 Osteoarthritis of the Stifle Joint 491
   Definition 491
   Clinical Signs 491
   Diagnose 491
   Conservative Treatment 491
   Surgical Treatment 491
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 492
28.14 Lower Leg 492
28.14.1 Anatomy of the Tibia 492
   Bone Type 492
   Characteristics 492
   Articular Surfaces 494
   Palpable Bone Structures 494
   Particularities 494
28.14.2 Anatomy of the Fibula 494
   Bone Type 494
   Characteristics 494
   Articular Surfaces 494
   Palpable Bone Structures 494
28.14.3 Muscles 495
28.14.4 Tibia and Fibula Fractures 499
   Definition 499
   Clinical Signs 499
   Diagnosis 499
   Conservative Treatment 499
   Surgical Treatment 499
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 499
28.14.5 Avulsion of the Tibial Tuberosity 499
   Definition 499
   Clinical Signs 499
   Diagnosis 499
   Conservative Treatment 500
   Surgical Treatment 500
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 500
28.15 Tarsal Joint, Metatarsus and Digits 500
28.15.1 Anatomy of the Tarsal Bones 500
   Bone Type 500
   Characteristics 500
   Articular Surfaces 501
   Palpable Bone Structures 501
28.15.2 Anatomy of the Hock (Articulatio Tarsi) 502
   Joint Type 502
   Articular Surfaces 502
   Articulation 502
   Joint Capsule 503
   Ligaments 503
   Movements 503
   Muscles 503
   Nerve Supply 505
28.15.3 Anatomy of the Metatarsal Bones (Ossa Metatarsalia) 505
   Bone Type 505
   Characteristics 505
   Articular Surfaces 505
   Palpable Bone Structures 505
   Particularities 505
28.15.4 Anatomy of the Digits 506
   Bone Type 506
   Characteristics 506
   Articular Surfaces 506
   Palpable Bone Structures 506
   Particularities 506
28.15.5 Anatomy of the Digital Joints 506
   Joint Type 506
   Bones 506
   Articulations 507
   Joint Capsule 507
   Ligaments 507
   Primary Movements 507
   Muscles 507
   Nerve Supply 509
28.15.6 Tarsal Fractures 509
   Definition 509
   Clinical Signs 509
   Diagnosis 509
   Conservative Treatment 509
   Surgical Treatment 509
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 510
28.15.7 Tarsal Luxation 510
   Definition 510
   Clinical Signs 510
   Diagnosis 510
   Conservative Treatment 510
   Surgical Treatment 510
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 510
28.15.8 Plantar Ligament Rupture 510
   Definition 510
   Clinical Signs 510
   Diagnosis 510
   Conservative Treatment 510
   Surgical Treatment 511
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 511
28.15.9 Arthrodesis 511
   Definition 511
   Surgical Treatment 511
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 511
28.15.10 Osteochondrosis Dissecans 511
   Definition 511
   Clinical Signs 511
   Diagnosis 512
   Conservative Treatment 512
   Surgical Treatment 512
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 512
28.15.11 Tear or Rupture of the Common Calcaneal Tendon (Achilles Tendon)   512
   Definition 512
   Clinical Signs 512
   Diagnosis 512
   Conservative Treatment 512
   Surgical Treatment 512
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 512
28.15.12 Achillodynia 512
   Definition 512
   Clinical Signs 513
   Diagnosis 513
   Conservative Treatment 513
   Surgical Treatment 513
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 513
28.15.13 Superficial Digital Flexor Displacement 513
   Definition 513
   Clinical Signs 513
   Diagnosis 513
   Conservative Treatment 513
   Surgical Treatment 513
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 513
28.15.14 Osteoarthritis of the Tarsal Joint 513
   Definition 513
   Clinical Signs 513
   Diagnosis 513
   Conservative Treatment 513
   Surgical Treatment 513
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 514
28.15.15 Sesamoid Bone Fractures 514
28.15.16 Fractures and Luxations of the Digits 514
28.15.17 Tendon Injuries in the Digits 514
28.16 General Treatment Plan for the Vertebral Column 515
28.16.1 Pain 515
28.16.2 Swelling 515
28.16.3 Tissue Healing and Regeneration 515
28.16.4 Secondary Muscular Tension 516
28.16.5 Range of Motion and Joint Function 516
28.16.6 Limb Loading 517
28.16.7 Proprioception and Balance 519
28.16.8 Musculature: Activation of Atrophic Musculature and Promotion of Strength and Endurance 521
28.17 Vertebral Column 524
28.17.1 Anatomy of the Vertebra (General Characteristics)   524
   Bone Type 524
   Characteristics 524
   Articular Surfaces 524
   Palpable Bone Structures 524
   Particularities 524
28.17.2 Cervical Vertebrae (Vertebrae Cervicales) 525
   Bones 525
   Characteristics 525
   Articular Surfaces 526
   Palpable Bone Structures 526
   Particularities 526
28.17.3 Thoracic Vertebrae (Vertebrae Thoracicae) 526
   Bones 526
   Characteristics 526
   Articular Surfaces 527
   Palpable Bone Structures 527
   Particularities 527
28.17.4 Lumbar Vertebrae (Vertebrae Lumbales) 527
   Bones 527
   Characteristics 527
   Articular Surfaces 527
   Palpable Bone Structures 528
   Particularities 528
28.17.5 Sacrum 528
   Bones 528
   Characteristics 528
   Articular Surfaces 528
   Palpable Bone Structures 528
   Particularities 528
28.17.6 Caudal Vertebrae (Vertebrae Caudales) 528
   Bones 528
   Characteristics 528
   Articular Surfaces 529
   Palpable Bone Structures 529
   Particularities 529
28.17.7 Ribs (Costae) 529
   Bone Type 529
   Characteristics 529
   Articular Surfaces 529
   Palpable Bone Structures 529
   Particularities 529
28.17.8 Sternum 529
   Bone Type 529
   Characteristics 530
   Articular Surfaces 530
   Palpable Bone Structures 530
   Particularities 530
28.17.9 Joints of the Spine 530
   Joint Type 530
   Bones 530
   Articulations 530
   Joint Capsule 530
   Ligaments 530
28.17.10 Joints of Skull 532
   Joint Type 532
   Bones 532
   Articulations 532
   Joint Capsule 533
   Ligaments 533
28.17.11 Joints of the Thorax 533
   Joint Type 533
   Bones 533
   Joints 533
   Joint Capsule 534
   Ligaments 534
   Movement 534
28.17.12 Muscles 534
28.17.13 Cervical Disc Herniation 542
   Definition 542
   Clinical Signs 542
   Diagnosis 542
   Conservative Treatment 542
   Surgical Treatment 542
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 543
28.17.14 Caudal Cervical Spondylomyelopathy, Wobbler Syndrome 544
   Definition 544
   Clinical Signs 544
   Diagnosis 544
   Conservative Treatment 544
   Surgical Treatment 544
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 544
28.17.15 Thoracolumbar Disc Herniation 544
   Definition 544
   Clinical Signs 544
   Diagnosis 544
   Conservative Treatment 544
   Surgical Treatment 544
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 545
28.17.16 Cauda Equina Compression Syndrome, Degenerative Lumbosacral Stenosis 545
   Definition 545
   Clinical Signs 546
   Diagnosis 546
   Conservative Treatment 546
   Surgical Treatment 546
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 546
28.17.17 Trauma 547
   Definition 547
   Clinical Signs 547
   Diagnosis 547
   Conservative Treatment 547
   Surgical Treatment 547
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 547
28.17.18 Spondylosis, Spondylarthrosis 547
   Definition 547
   Clinical Signs 547
   Diagnosis 547
   Conservative Treatment 547
   Surgical Treatment 547
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 547
28.18 General Treatment Plan for the Neurological Disorders 548
28.18.1 Pain 548
28.18.2 Swelling 548
28.18.3 Tissue Healing and Regeneration 548
28.18.4 Secondary Musculature Tension 549
28.18.5 Range of Motion and Joint Function 549
28.18.6 Limb Loading 550
28.18.7 Proprioception and Balance 552
28.18.8 Musculature: Activation of Atrophic Musculature and Promotion of Strength and Endurance 554
28.19 Neurology 557
28.19.1 Basic Anatomy of the Spinal Cord 557
   External Appearance 557
   Inner Composition 558
28.19.2 Structures Surrounding the Spinal Cord 559
28.19.3 General Structure of the Spinal Nerves 560
   General Structure 560
   Cauda Equina 561
28.19.4 Innervation Areas of the Spinal Nerves 561
   Cervical Nerves 561
   Thoracic Nerves 562
   Lumbar Nerves 562
   Sacral Nerves 562
   Caudal Nerves 562
28.19.5 Brachial Plexus 563
   Nerves of the Extrinsic Muscles of the Thoracic Limb 563
   Nerves of the Intrinsic Muscles of the Thoracic Limb 565
28.19.6 Lumbosacral Plexus 566
28.19.7 Degenerative Myelopathy 569
   Definition 569
   Clinical Signs 569
   Diagnosis 569
   Conservative Treatment 569
   Surgical Treatment 569
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 569
28.19.8 Fibrocartilaginous Infarct 569
   Definition 569
   Clinical Signs 569
   Diagnosis 570
   Conservative Treatment 570
   Surgical Treatment 570
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 570
28.19.9 Geriatric Peripheral Vestibular Disease 570
   Definition 570
   Clinical Signs 570
   Diagnosis 570
   Conservative Treatment 570
   Surgical Treatment 570
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 570
28.19.10 Peripheral Ischemic Neuropathy (Tilted Window Syndrome) 570
   Definition 570
   Clinical Signs 570
   Diagnosis 570
   Conservative Treatment 571
   Surgical Treatment 571
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 571
28.19.11 Acute Idiopathic Polyradiculoneuritis (Coonhound Paralysis) 571
   Definition 571
   Clinical Signs 571
   Diagnosis 571
   Conservative Treatment 571
   Surgical Treatment 571
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 571
28.19.12 Brachial Plexus Avulsions 571
   Definition 571
   Clinical Signs 571
   Diagnosis 572
   Conservative Treatment 572
   Surgical Treatment 572
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 572
28.19.13 Sciatic Nerve Injuries 572
   Definition 572
   Clinical Signs 572
   Diagnosis 572
   Conservative Treatment 572
   Surgical Treatment 572
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 572
28.19.14 Cognitive Dysfunction 572
   Definition 572
   Clinical Signs 572
   Diagnosis 573
   Conservative Treatment 573
   Surgical Treatment 573
   Special Considerations Within the Rehabilitation Plan 573
28.20 Muscular Injuries 573
28.20.1 Classification of Muscle Injuries 573
28.20.2 General Rehabilitation Plan 574
28.21 The Amputee Patient 575
28.21.1 General Information 575
28.21.2 General Rehabilitation Plan 575
28.22 Osteoarthritis 576
28.22.1 Definition 576
28.22.2 Results of the Clinical Examination 576
28.22.3 Diagnosis 576
28.22.4 Therapy for Patients with Osteoarthritis 576
   Step-By-Step Multimodal Approach 576
   Simultaneous Multimodular Approach 577
   Treatment Methods 577
28.23 Feline Physical Rehabilitation 580
28.23.1 Factors Involved in Feline Rehabilitation 580
28.23.2 Passive Range of Motion (PROM) 580
28.23.3 Stretching 582
28.23.4 Chasing a Flashlight or Laser Light Beam 582
28.23.5 Can Opener 582
28.23.6 Toys 582
28.23.7 Following a Treat 583
28.23.8 Cavalettis 583
28.23.9 Wheelbarrowing 584
28.23.10 Dancing Exercises 584
28.23.11 Wobble Boards 584
28.23.12 Physioballs and Rolls 584
28.23.13 Proprioception Pillows and Mattresses 585
28.23.14 Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) 586
   Indications 586
   Procedure 586
28.23.15 Therapeutic Ultrasound 587
   Indications 587
   Procedure 587
28.23.16 Laser Therapy 587
   Indications 587
   Procedure 587
28.23.17 Treatment Plans 587
28.24 The Geriatric Patient 588
28.24.1 When is a Patient Considered Geriatric? 588
28.24.2 The Effects of the Aging Process 589
   Immune Competence 589
   Cardiovascular System and Respiratory Tract 589
   Skin and the Integumentary System 589
   Gastrointestinal and Urinary Tract 589
   Endocrine System 589
   Musculoskeletal 589
   Nervous System 589
   Other 589
28.24.3 Fit and Agile Despite Aging 589
   General Information 589
   The Owner of the Geriatric Pet 590
   Geriatric Patients in the Clinic 590
   Movement Keeps You in Shape 590
   Pain Therapy and Methods That Promote Regeneration 591
28.24.4 Environmental Modifications for    Geriatric Patients 591
28.24.5 Nutrition for Geriatric Animals with Normal Weights 592
28.24.6 Nutrition for Geriatric Animals that are Overweigh 592.

29. References 597
30. Index 621



저자 명단 (알파벳 순)
Authors (listed in alphabetic order)

Andy Armitage
BSc (Hons), BVM&S, MRCVS
Greenside Veterinary Practice Ltd
Greenside Farm, St Boswells, Melrose, Scotland. TD6 0AJ, UK

Barbara Bockstahler
Priv.-Doz., DVM, DECVSMR, DACVSMR, Specialist in Veterinary Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, CCRP
Department for Small Animals and Horses, Small Animal
Surgery, Section for Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna,
Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria

Matthew Brunke
DVM, DACVSMR, CCRP, CVPP, CVA, Certified in Pain
Management and Acupuncture
VOSM - Veterinary Orthopedic & Sports Medicine Group 10975 Guilford Rd, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701, USA

Ionut Alexandră Ciuperca
DVM, MSc, CCRP, CVA
VetPhysioCenter
București, Romania

K. Jeff Collins
President & CEO
K-9 Orthotics & Prosthetics Inc.
2616 Beaver Bank Rd, Beaver Bank, NS, B4G 1E6, Canada

Renata Diniz
DVM, MSc, CCRP
Rehabilita Cans - Animal Rehabilitation Center - Calle Berga 68
07600 - El Arenal - Llucmajor
Majorca, Spain

Marti Drum
DVM, PhD, DACVSMR, CCRP, CERP
Clinical Associate Professor, Small Animal Physical Rehabilitation, University of Tennessee,
C247 Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

Beate Egner
DVM
Veterinary Academy of Higher Learning (VAHL),
VBS GmbH, Im Riemen 27, 64832 Babenhausen, Germany

Christopher Frye
DVM, DACVSMR, Assistant Clinical Professor
Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine
Veterinary Medical Center 322 Campus Road, Ithaca, New
York, 14853, USA

Deborah Gross Torraca
DPT, MSPT, CCRP, CCMT, Board Certified Orthopedic Clinical Specialist, Emeritus
Wizard of Paws Physical Rehabilitation for Animals
155 Westchester Road, Colchester, CT 06415, USA

Stefanie Handl
DVM, DECVCN, Veterinary Specialist for Nutrition and Dietetics
Reisnerstraße 7, 1030 Wien, Austria

Julia Henke†
PD DVM
Essenbrühl 5, 88487 Mietingen, Germany

Jennifer Hummel
MV. Esp. MBA
R. da Esperança, 5940 Lote F4 - Araçatuba, Imbituba - SC, CEP
88780-000, Santa Catarina, Brazil

Susanne Lauer
Prof. DVM, DACVS, DECVS, DACVSMR, DECVSMR, CCRP
Department of Surgery and Gynecology at the Ludwig
Maximilians University, Small Animal Clinic,
Veterinärstr. 13, 80539 Munich, Germany

David Levine
PT, PhD, DPT, CCRP, FAPTA
Board Certified Clinical Specialist in Orthopedic Physical Therapy,
615 McCallie Ave., Chattanooga, TN 37403, USA

Karin Lorinson
DVM
Center for Small Animal Surgery,
Dr. Lorinson Marktstrasse 19, 2331 Vösendorf, Austria

Dragan Lorinson
Associate Professor, DVM, DECVS
Center for Small Animal Surgery,
Dr. Lorinson Marktstrasse 19, 2331 Vösendorf, Austria

Johann W. Maierl
Prof. DVM (Deputy Chair), FTA Anatomy
Deputy Chair of the Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology, Faculty at the Ludwig Maximilians University Veterinary School,
Veterinärstr. 13, 80539 Munich, Germany

Daniel McCarthy
DVM, Orthopedic Fellow
Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences
C247, VTH, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

Hannah McLean
DVM, CCRP
Resident in Veterinary Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation
Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences
C247, VTH, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

Solange Mikail
DVM, MS, DACVSMR
Rua Nilo, 214, Chácaras da Represinha, Cotia- SP,
CEP: 06717-710, Brazil

Darryl L. Millis
MS, DVM, DACVS, CCRP, DACVSMR
Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
Director, CARES Center for Veterinary Sports Medicine
Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences
C247, VTH, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

Monica Monici
Doctor in Biologic Sciences, Adjunct Prof. of Laser Microscopy
ASA Campus Joint Laboratory,
ASA Research Division
Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences,
University of Florence Viale Pieraccini 6, I-50139 Florence, Italy

Marion Mucha
DVM, DECVSMR, CCRP, CVA, CVPP
Department for Small Animals and Horses, Small Animal Surgery, Section for Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1,
1210 Wien, Austria

Bianca Reicher
MVSc, CCRP
Department for Small Animals and Horses, Small Animal Surgery, Section for Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation
University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1,
1210 Vienna, Austria

Dorothy Selig
Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA)
K-9 Orthotics & Prosthetics Inc.
2616 Beaver Bank Rd
Beaver Bank, NS, B4G 1E6, Canada

Sabine Tacke
Prof. DVM, Specialist in Veterinary Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Specialist in Veterinary Surgery
Justus Liebig University Veterinary Medical Small Animal and Surgery Clinic, Veterinary Medical Anesthesiology, Pain Therapy and Perioperative Intensive Care Clinic, Frankfurter Str. 114,
35392 Giessen, Germany

Rico Vannini
DVM, DECVS
Bessy’s Small Animal Clinic,
Eichwatt 3, CH-8105 Watt/Regensdorf, Switzerland

Gustavo Vicente
MV Esp.
R. da Esperança, 5940 Lote F4 - Araçatuba, Imbituba - SC, CEP
88780-000, Santa Catarina, Brazil

Joseph Wakshlag
DVM, PhD, DACVN, DACVSMR
Associate Professor of Clinical Nutrition and Sports Medicine/ Rehabilitation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine
Veterinary Medical Center, 322 Campus Road, Ithaca, New
York, 14853, USA

Kathleen Wittek
DVM, Veterinary Chiropractor IVCA, Certificate of Added Qualification
in Physical Medicine by the Saxon Veterinary Association
Department for Small Animals and Horses, Small Animal Surgery, Section for Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation
University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1,
1210 Vienna, Austria

배송 정보

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  • 배송 지역 : 전국지역
  • 배송 비용 : 3,000원
  • 배송 기간 : 2일 ~ 5일
  • 배송 안내 : - 산간벽지나 도서지방은 별도의 추가금액을 지불하셔야 하는 경우가 있습니다.
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